Introduction to JICE

Author: Timo Laitinen
Date: 2006-04-16


1. What is JICE?

JICE is used for defining objects in a Java application. Instead of writing Java code that creates the application objects, the objects are described in XML files that are transformed to running objects with JICE. This way the dependencies between the Java objects are easier to manage.

As an IoC container, the strengths of JICE are:

The sections Using JICE for Constructing Applications and Using JICE for Configuring Applications explain the advantages of using JICE.

2. A Simple Example

Lets assume that we have an application that uses java.text.DateFormat for formatting dates. Instead of hardcoding the format into the Java code or putting it into properties files, we use JICE for defining the java.text.DateFormat instance.

2.1.Write a JIC File

First, we would write the following kind of JIC file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<dateFormatxmlns="" class="java.text.SimpleDateFormat" args="pattern,locale">
<pattern>dd.MM.yyyy HH:mm:ss z</pattern>
<locale class="java.util.Locale" args="language,country">

The file defines a java.text.SimpmleDateFormat instance with the pattern dd.MM.yyyy HH:mm:ss z and locale fi,FI. It corresponds to the following Java code:

  java.text.DateFormat dateFormat;
  String pattern = "dd.MM.yyyy HH:mm:ss z";

  String language = "fi";
  String country = "FI";
  java.util.Locale locale = new java.util.Locale(language,country);

  dateFormat = new java.text.SimpleDateFormat(pattern,locale);

  return dateFormat;

2.2.Process the JIC File

In the application, the DateFormat instance would be obtained by processing the JIC file with the following Java code:

try {
  // locate the jic file jicFile = new"examples/DateFormat-2.jic"));

  // process the file with JIC Engine
  Object result =;

  // we assume that we got a DateFormat instance
  java.text.DateFormat dateFormat = (java.text.DateFormat) result;

  // use the dateFormat for something..

} catch(Exception e){
  // handle the exception..

The code invokes JIC Engine that actually processes the file. JIC Engine reads the XML data and uses reflection for creating the required Java instances.


3. Why Not Just Do Everything in Java Code?

Everything JICE does may be achieved by writing Java code. However, JICE makes the definitions of the application objects easier to change and manage:

4. Using JICE for Constructing Applications

A running Java application consists of Java instances. Application construction is a process where these Java instances are created, their state is initialized and the necessary objects are connected with each other.

The process consists mainly of multiple constructor and method invocations which are executed more or less in sequence. New Java objects are instantiated, their properties are set, methods are called, object references are passed around, etc.

JICE is an engine that performs these construction tasks. It specifies an XML language called JIC Language for describing the kind of Java instances an application has. JIC Engine is a set of Java classes for processing the XML data. JIC Engine reads the instructions in an XML file and initializes the necessary Java instances by using reflection.

4.1.Application Construction Model

The following chart gives an overview of the application construction process.

JICE Process

Here is a explanation of the details:

  1. A JIC file contains the construction instructions that are written in JIC Language. The instructions specify what kind of Java instances are to be created.
  2. In addition to the JIC file, some runtime parameters may be provided. These parameters are Java instances created outside JIC Engine.
  3. Classpath contains all the available Java classes and therefore specifies the kind of Java objects that can be created.
  4. JIC Engine reads the instructions of the JIC file and creates the required Java objects with reflection.
  5. The result of the process is a graph of Java objects. The graph can be a whole application or it may be used as a part of a larger application.

4.2.Why Use JICE in Application Construction?

5. Using JICE for Configuring Applications

In addition to application construction, JICE can also be used in application configuration. Application construction and configuration are closely related, as the construction usually includes configuring the application.

5.1.What Is Application Configuration?

In this context, configuring an application means modifying some parts of an application without touching the actual application code. It is in contrast with programming, which definitely includes the modification of the source code.

In addition to the actual code, applications typically have various kinds of configuration files that specify some details of the application. Traditionally the configuration files contain minor details like fonts, colors, localized texts, etc. An application is configured by editing these configuration files.

In general, configuration files are used because there is a need to change some parts of an application easily. Application code is often not flexible enough - it has to be compiled, the editing requires programming skills, etc.

An application using configuration files consists of:

application = application code + configuration data

There is no clear rule on how to decide what things should be configurable and what things should be put in application code. The minor details are a good candidate for configurable things - putting detailed values into the code is considered hardcoding, which is a bad thing in general. The implementation of the core application logic and features should be defined in the application code. However, there is a gray area between these two things.

5.2.Why Use JICE for Configuring Applications?

In general, JICE is suitable to be used as a configuration tool because the instructions in the JIC files are easier to change than Java code:

As a configuration tool, JICE provides four things:

  1. a flexible format for specifying the details of the application
  2. the possibility to implement also larger structure changes without code changes
  3. modification of application configuration with XML tools such as XSLT
  4. there is no need to document the configuration. There is a direct mapping between the JIC file and the application API, so it is enough to only document the Java API.

The JIC Language is a good format for describing details: strings, numbers, booleans, urls, file paths, colors, fonts, date and number formats, etc. The format is very verbose and declarative, so it is relatively easy to both find the value to be modified and modify the value without breaking anything.

However, in addition to the specific data values, a JIC file defines also some parts of the application structure. This has both pros and cons. The format enables even complex structure changes, which is typically not possible with other configuration tools like Java properties files for example. On the other hand, the content in a JIC file is more complex than in a configuration tool that is specialized in specifying only the details - Java properties files are as simple as it can get.

The fact that JICE uses XML files brings in all the advantages of XML. It is for example possible to modify the configuration of an application with XSLT. It is also possible to create a custom XML format for the application and convert it to JIC Language code through XSLT.

6. Things JICE Can Not Do